Thursday, September 4, 2008

Urine Full Examination

Urine FEME

YAY WE SURVIVED HALF OF OUR SIP! Haha great job guys! :)

Anyway like what Lesile mentioned in his post, for the 3 of us in Raffles we are permanently stationed in a section each. I’m stationed at the urine section! Hence today I will share with you guys about Urine FEME.

Urine FEME stands for Urine Full Examination(FE) Microscopy Examination(ME).
As the name implies, there is 2 processes to perform upon receiving the urine samples.

I will share with guys what is FE this post and contiune with ME on my next post yeah:)

Full Examination
The 1st process to perform upon receiving a urine sample is urine full examination. This process uses urine dip stick to test for the content of the urine.

For my lab, we uses Combur-test strips and Miditron Junior II to obtain the results.

Test for:

S.G (Specific Gravity):
o Purpose: Check the amount of substances in urine, which shows us how well our kidneys balance the amount of water in urine.
o Range: 1.005-1.030

o Purpose: Measure how acidic or alkaline the urine is.
o Range: pH 4.5-8
o In our lab, we use the pH to determine the type of crystals observed in urine.
(Will be further evaluated under ME)

Pro (Protein):
o Purpose: Detect for kidney diseases; measures albumin level in urine
o Range: neg, trace, 1+, 2+, 3+
o If pro is > 1+, we need to look out for cast in ME
o Fever and pregnancy may cause protein in urine.

Leu (Leucocytes):
o Purpose: Detect for UTI
o Range: neg, trace, 1+, 2+, 3+
o If leu is > trace, we need to look out for WBCs in ME for confirmatory.

Nit (Nitrate):
o Purpose: Detect for bacteria infectioin
o Range: neg or pos
o Even if it is pos, report only if there is present of bacteria.

Glu (Glucose):
o Purpose: To detect for diabetes
o Range: neg, trace, 1+, 2+, 3+
o If glu is > trace, do a confirmatory test with Keto-Diabur-Test 5000 urine dip sticks.

Ket (Ketones):
o Purpose: To measure whether fat is metabolized properly in our body.
o Range: neg, trace, 1+, 2+, 3+
o If ket is > trace, do a confirmatory test with Keto-Diabur-Test 5000 urine dip sticks.

Ubg (Urobilinogen):
o Purpose: Detect for hepatic dysfunction
o Range: neg, trace, 1+, 2+, 3+
o If ubg is > 2+, perform confirmatory test by repeating Combur-test strips.

Bil (Bilirubin):
o Purpose: Detect for hepatic dysfunction
o Range: neg, trace, 1+, 2+, 3+
o If leu is > 1+, perform confirmatory test with bilirubin tablet (ICTOTEST® Reagent Tablet)
(If tablet turns absorbant purple, bil is pos)

Ery (Erthrocytes):
o Purpose: Pathologically significant for several diseases
o Range: neg, trace, 1+, 2+, 3+
o If leu is > 1+, we need to look out for RBCs in ME for confirmatory.

For more details, visit

Hui Min


SIP said...

Hi min

When will you need to perform the full urine examination? Is it that all urine send to you must be test in the full urine examination?


tg01 group 2 said...

Hi huimin

I would just like to ask, how is the urine collected? Mid-stream or full?
And are there any confirmatory tests?

Thank you

~immortals~ said...

hello hui min

i'd like to know how specific gravity of the urine is measured. and is specific gravity the same as osmolality like we did in cchem prac?


SIP said...

Yoyoyo Justina!

95% of e urine send to us usually ordered for full urine examination. This examination is a common urine test for healthy people:)

The other 5% of the urine is when they suspect of certain bacteria infection (eg.Neisseria gonorrhoeae). This we dun perform in RH but send out to other labs to do..

Take care!

tg01 =)

SIP said...

Hey ernest!

The urine collected is mid-stream.
This is to eliminate commensal bacteria that colonized our urethra.


SIP said...

Hey rusydiana!

In our lab the urine S.G is measured using the machine Miditron Junior II:)

Yupyup both S.G ad osmolality measures the concentration of particles in the urine. But they uses units(for osmolality:mOsm/kg)


SIP said...

Hi Huimin!

Is this test done along with other tests(as confirmatory etc etc)? and what it is meant by mid-stream & full? Thanks

Ying Chee

MadTechs said...

hey hui min!!

i understand that the time taken to read the results will affect the reading of the results for tests that uses the test strip. for example, if you were to read the test strip after 1 minute, the results may not be accurate. so how long, or within how many seconds do you need to read the results?

thanks babe. C:

Nur Azeimah
TG 02

SIP said...

hey YC!

People usually order for urine FEME in a package... which means they do a full body checkup that includes urine, blood, stool and pap smear:)

Mid-stream urine refers to the urine from the middle of the bladder.It can be collected by passing some urine into the toilet. Then, without stopping the flow of urine, catch some urine in a sterile bottle.

Full urine refers the whole amount of the urine:)

tg01 =)

hellomedtech said...

Hellooo hui min!!

heh heh dont be angry ahh coz i ask u qn =p

can describe a bit how u do the confirmatory test for bilirubin?

thanks! see u tmr =)

Nur Farhana

'Z'h'a'o'R'o'n'g' said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
'Z'h'a'o'R'o'n'g' said...

Hi Hui mIn!

I'm wondering.. for the nitrate test.. Do u add nitrate reagents to the urine? How does a positive result resembles? Change of color?

Tan ZHao Rong

SIP said...

Hey Azeimah!

For glucose/ketone test strip we read it around 1min later after we dip it nto urine...

For the rest of the test strip tests we uses the machine! Haha so no need worry if the results will be affected :)

Take care!

Huimin =)

SIP said...

Hey Farhana!

Haha no la u so nice can ask as many qns as u like:)

Oh its very simple actually...
1) Drip 10 drops of urine onto the absorbent paper
2)Place a bilirubin tablet on the centre of the absorbent paper
3) Add a drop of water onto the tablet every 5s until u observe a colour change

Haha now you know next time if theres a confirmatory test i ask you to do ok :)

See u!

Huimin =)

SIP said...

Hey Zhao!

For nitrate test we no need add reagents, only do dipstick.. which is the change of colour:)

The colour is change from white to pink. But even theres a colour change bacteria must be present before we report it positive!

Take care!

Huimin =)

Ms_chew said...

Very prompt in answering the questions. Good work. Keep it up.

SIP said...

Thanks Ms Chew! =)

huimin =)

mJ said...

heyy min

i hve a Q.. what does it means if the result shows LEU = 25 leu/ul+ ?


Mato said...

Hi, thank you for sharing this information. Is urinalysis synonymous with urine FEME?